This report focuses on the communication policy of South Asia, with a particular emphasis on India.   It is designed to address various aspects of communication policy from an international and comparative perspective.  The context for this analysis can be found in the overview of India’s communication policy from seven policy areas (please see “Policy at a Glance“).  Based on this research, the authors then focus on five distinct yet related cultural policy issues and offer further analysis and recommendations.

Please see our Definitions page for definitions related to our analysis of cultural models and language.

Report 1: Language Policy in Pakistan by Faizullah Jan
Policy document: Education Policy 2009

  • Pakistan is a multilingual country
  • National and official languages: Urdu and English (neither indigenous)
  • Education is a critical implementation issue for language
  • Policy: inconsistent and ambiguous
  • Policy: speaks of indigenous languages, but privileges Urdu and English.
  • Result: loss of local languages, development of critical thinking, barrier to effective schooling


  • Primary education i.e. from Grade 1 to Grade 5 should be offered in mother tongue with Urdu and English as separate subjects.
  • From Grade 6 to Grade 10, the medium of instruction can be switched to Urdu with English as a separate subject
  • From Grade 10 onward English should be medium of instruction.

Report 2: Language Policy in India by Elizabeth Romig
Policy document: India’s Constitution, Article 30 (Fundamental Rights)

  • Tension between preserving culture and promoting economic growth
  • Broad policy lacks pragmatism
  • Post-colonial and multicultural perspective
  • Rising role of English for commerce
  • Reassess actual language patterns in India
  • Rethink required three languages
  • Prioritize English for specific subjects

Report 4: Film Policy in Pakistan by Jacquelyn Chi

Policy: Ban on Indian Films 1965-2008

  • No concrete policy; derives power from various legislative acts.
  • Lack of specific policy and transparency led to confusion over the ban.
  • Contradiction between easing the ban and trade policy excluding Indian films from import.
  • Confusing policy reflects its use as a political tool
  • National/political model of culture rather than real protectionist policy
  • Film industry’s steady decline since ban implementation.


  • Continue allowing Indian films to rebuild a cinema-going culture.
  • View India as a collaborator vs. competitor.

Report 5: Nation Branding in South Korea by Ashley Turner
Policy: Government’s Presidential Council on Nation Branding under tagline,  “Korea, A Loving Embrace.”

  • 10-point plan to raise awareness of Korean culture in the global community, change perception from a (hard) economic power to a soft power.
  • Nationalist/cultural model of thinking.
  • Enthusiastic to export culture, but wary of outside influences and alternate interpretations of their own culture.


  • Make a concerted effort to show an openness and respect for other cultures. This will build appreciation from other countries and enrich their own and engender a feeling of connectivity with the global community.
  • The plan can be a success if the government does this in tandem with the campaigns already in motion.

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